How vacuum pumps work?

A quick history! 

Otto von Guericke, the German scientist who founded the vacuum pump (1650) had demonstrated the power of it through an experiment. His aim was to prove the power of atmospheric pressure. He was successful in showcasing his idea as he used the vacuum pump to pump out most of the air molecules between two halves of copper spheres that were joined together. Once the vacuum pump was used, the two spheres could not be separated by one another even with 15 horses pulling them apart. This experiment, also known as the Magdeburg hemispheres experiment, brought about the trend and use of vacuum pumps globally in industrial, commercial, and mechanical purposes. 

Here’s how vacuum pumps work

If you know the mechanism of vacuum then it is more or less the same thing with Vacuum pumps. In order to create a vacuum, it is essential to move all the existing gas molecules out of the system. The molecules shall only move when there is a difference in pressure between the two areas. The area left with lesser molecules will hence have lower pressure and a vacuum while the area with more molecules will have higher pressure. This is exactly why the Magdeburg hemispheres couldn’t be separated from each other despite being pulled by two teams of horses. It was not because the two hemispheres were caught with each other due to low internal molecule count but due to huge molecule count around them and low molecule inside them. The device that can bring such a difference in molecular pressure between two areas is known as a vacuum pump.  How liquid ring vacuum pump works - EnggCyclopediaBroadly speaking, there are two different types of vacuum pumps available – The transfer pump and the trapping pump. The transfer pump is also referred to as the kinetic pump as it pushes the gas from the inlet of the pump to the outlet. This is done with the help of a mechanical motor inside the pump that accelerates molecules and hence creates the low pressure in the area. The high vacuum valve comes into action when the pump is filled with a vacuum. The exchange of gas between the container and pump is completely stalled by the valve.

On the other hand, the trapping pump or the capture pump is mostly found in the container. The main purpose of these pumps is to remove gas molecules with the help of sorption or condensation on the provided internal surface. Once the gas molecules come in contact with the refrigerated surface, the molecules are converted into a liquid and removed from the area. 

3 Principles of vacuum pumps 

These days, there are 3 major principles on which the vacuum pumps work. They are-  

  • Positive displacement 
  • Momentum transfer 
  • Entrapment 

In order to create high-end vacuum conditions the momentum transfer and entrapment pumps are used. It is noteworthy that these pumps require plenty of maintenance and are way too costly than the others. 

Regular maintenance is a must for vacuum pumps as most of them face damage after a period of usage. Keeping it clean and maintained will help you to run it for years without any worry! 

If you are planning to get a vacuum for your home or office, choose one based on your floor types. Explore our site further to know all about the vacuum that you wish to buy!!

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